Tortora, Principles of Anatomy and Physiology, 14e Help I System Announcements (1 Unread) Animation: Water and Fluid Flow, Question o5 To answer this question, first click here to view the associated animation Water-containing mucus released by the gastrointestinal mucosa can be used in (to): O in hydrolysis reactions to digest macromolecules O in dehydration synthesis reactions to digest. Gastrointestinal Physiology and Mast-Cell Function. The number of mast cells at a given site can vary, depending upon the location and immunologic status of the host. 2, 4 Mast cells comprise 2-5% of mononuclear cells in the lamina propria of the normal gastrointestinal tract, representing an average of 13 cells per high-power field in the duodenum and colon. 5, 6 Previous studies have.
Mucus is a slippery or slimy substance that is naturally produced by your bowels. It helps lubricate stool as it moves through the bowels and can protect bowel walls from more abrasive foods that you might eat (e.g. small seeds and nuts). It also helps prevent fluid loss from the walls of the colon and keeps them moist - stimulates the growth of oxyntic mucosa of stomach, duodenal mucosa, and colon mucosa - patients with gastrin secreting tumors have mucosal hyperplasia and hypertrophy - Released from G cells in antrum, duodenum, and jejunum - Stimulus: 1. protein digestion products 2. nervous, physical distention 3. gastrin releasing peptide (vagal stimulation
Intestinal metaplasia, gastric ulcer, andHelicobacter pylori infection. Mucins are implicated in the aetiology and may assist in the diagnosis of gastric intestinal metaplasia (IM) associated with gastric ulceration, Helicobacter pylori infection, and the risk of gastric cancer. The histochemical detection of mucins is used for classification into complete (type I), incomplete without. Mucus, though it doesn't look like it, helps destroy bacteria and viruses, in addition to trapping particles, preventing water loss, lubricating the movement of materials through your body, and protects all the surfaces it touches from damage. You have mucus in your mouth, in the form of saliva, and even in your eyes Mucus lubricates surfaces and allows materials to pass smoothly. Some amount of mucus in the stool is normal; however, significant amounts of mucus and mucus accompanied by diarrhea, pain or blood may signify an intestinal condition such as infection or inflammation A small amount of mucus in your bowel movement is normal. If you have diarrhea with mucus, inflammatory bowel disease or an infection could be to blame. Learn more about possible causes and when.
Mucus is a slimy, slippery fluid that acts as a lubricant and protects various structures in the body. There are a number of mucus-secreting cells in the body, but mucus is most prominent in the respiratory, genital and gastrointestinal tracts, notes the University of Colorado at Boulder 1 The gastric mucosa possesses a number of mechanisms permitting resistance to damage from its own secreted acid. No single mechanism can account for gastric mucosal defense. Mucosal permeability to acid, active ion transport, blood flow, mucus secretion, epithelial restitution, and prostaglandin synt In addition to its ability to produce urease to elevate pH of its environment, H. pylori further protects itself by swimming through the protective layer of gastric mucus in the stomach and attaching to the epithelial cells beneath, where it can cause inflammation over the course of lifelong infection
By adsorbing 'aggressors' (infectious factors) of the gastrointestinal mucosa barrier, these materials can serve as both prophylactic and therapeutic agents. 11.6.1. Interactions of Clay Minerals with Gastrointestinal Mucus. At the surface of the gut, a mucus gel adheres to the epithelial cells of the mucosa Uses This combination medication is used to relieve coughs caused by the common cold, bronchitis, and other breathing illnesses. Guaifenesin belongs to a class of drugs known as expectorants. It.. The intestinal mucus layer is a vital barrier to block pathogenic microorganisms from entering the body and also plays a major role in inflammatory bowel disease
The objective of this study was to design intestinal mucus-penetrating core-shell nanocomplex by functionally mimicking the surface of virus, which can be used as the carrier for peroral delivery of macromolecules, and further understand the influence of nanocomplex surface properties on the mucosal permeation capacity The gastric mucosal barrier is the property of the stomach that allows it to safely contain the gastric acid required for digestion.. If the barrier is broken, as by acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, aspirin) in acid solution, acid diffuses back into the mucosa where it can cause damage to the stomach itself.. The barrier consists of three protective components.. 15.In addition to mucus, the intestinal mucosa produces two other types of secretions. Copious amounts of the serous-type fluid are secreted to act as a: A) Vehicle for absorption B) Enzyme that splits sugars C) Protection from acid content D) Parasympathetic stimulation Ans: A Page 5. Feedback: An isotonic alkaline fluid is secreted by crypts. . Although the terms are used interchangeably, there are a few differences between them: Mucus is a clear, stringy fluid produced by mucous glands in tissues lining the nose, mouth and throat. Phlegm is a form of mucus produced by the lungs and lower respiratory tract
The engineered bacteria produce a network of nanofibers that directly binds to mucus to fill inflamed areas like a patch, shielding them from gut microbes and environmental factors. This probiotic-based therapeutic strategy protected mice against the effects of colitis induced by a chemical agent and promoted mucosal healing Mainly composed of mucins, mucus secreted by goblet cells in the intestinal epithelium is critically involved in the protection of the gastrointestinal mucosa. The hypothesis that bile and some bile salts can induce mucus secretion was tested in the isolated perfused rat colon. Mucus release was evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and supported by histological analysis One of the hallmarks during EAEC infection of the gastrointestinal tract is the release of IL-8, The first obstacle encountered in the intestinal mucosa is the protective mucus barrier. A new drug absorption model based on monolayers of the human intestinal goblet cell line HT29-H grown on permeable filters has been characterized. HT29-H cells have been shown (a) to form monolayers of mature goblet cells under standard cell culture conditions, (b) to secrete mucin molecules, (c) to produce a mucus layer that covers the apical cell surface, and (d) that this mucus layer is a. When overgrown - these H. pylori byproducts degrade a bigger patch of mucosa than the body can tolerate. Stomach acid now splashes on the exposed area - setting the stage for inflammation & gastric ulcers. Ulcers can be quite serious - especially if you combine an H. pylori infection with NSAID use (ibuprofen & acetaminophen) or other irritants
The intestinal lining or mucus buildup theory is an alternative to the parasite theory of the rope worm. This theory claims that these long rope-like structures are simply shed pieces of. Bad breath, Bad taste in mouth, Swollen tonsils, Thick saliva or mucus. Cracks at corner of mouth, Thick saliva or mucus. Drooling, Excessive mouth watering, Thick saliva or mucus. Cough, Nasal congestion, Thick saliva or mucus. Drainage or pus (Nose), Drainage or pus (Mouth), Thick saliva or mucus
Occasional that can be caused by rectal carcinoma and villous adenoma. Also perineal Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis is possible for rectal mucus discharge. There is included and solitary rectal ulcer syndrome too. A very rare condition that causes rectal mucus discharge is anal tuberculosis, syphilis, gonorrhea or AIDS. As you can see. Mucus in the stool may be considered a common symptom of some digestive conditions, such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and ulcerative colitis (one form of inflammatory bowel disease , or IBD). 1 Other conditions that can cause larger amounts of visible mucus in the stool include bacterial infections, anal fissures, a bowel obstruction.
Human digestive system - Human digestive system - Gastric mucosa: The inner surface of the stomach is lined by a mucous membrane known as the gastric mucosa. The mucosa is always covered by a layer of thick mucus that is secreted by tall columnar epithelial cells. Gastric mucus is a glycoprotein that serves two purposes: the lubrication of food masses in order to facilitate movement within the. The ulcer-causing gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori is the only bacterium known to colonize the harsh acidic environment of the human stomach. H. pylori survives in acidic conditions by producing urease, which catalyzes hydrolysis of urea to yield ammonia thus elevating the pH of its environment. However, the manner in which H. pylori is able to swim through the viscoelastic mucus gel that. . It protects the throat from pollen and bacteria. It even protects your stomach from stomach acid. When too much mucus is produced, however, it can become quite bothersome. This sticky substance can begin to build up in the back of your throat. That makes it difficult to swallow your food and breathe. Sticky, rubbery mucus can develop from environmental and lifestyle factors. Viral, bacterial, or fungal infections in your sinuses can also trigger it. Here's how to treat and prevent it
Mucus symptoms, such as runny nose and nasal congestion, are most commonly due to allergies or viral infections like the common cold. Bacterial, viral and fungal infections leading to sinusitis, bronchitis or pneumonia can also cause mucus symptoms of the respiratory system. Many different gastrointestinal conditions and diseases cause mucus. The mucus in your nose, mouth, throat, and lungs is usually a clear, colorless thin fluid that helps to keep tissue in your airways moist. The color and consistency of mucus secretions can tell a lot about your health. If you have an infection, the color of mucus can change to a green or yellow color and become a lot thicker and stickier . Mucous membranes can be found lining the respiratory system, digestive system, reproductive system, and urinary system. The term 'mucosa' is used to identify specific mucous membranes
. botulinum can colonize the gastrointestinal tract of an infant less than 1 year of age.. botulinum spores in honey used to sweeten infants milk or water, when ingested, geminate in the infants intestinal tract, colonize it and produce toxin in vivo The stomach mucosa's epithelial lining consists only of surface mucus cells, which secrete a protective coat of alkaline mucus. A vast number of gastric pits dot the surface of the epithelium, giving it the appearance of a well-used pincushion, and mark the entry to each gastric gland , which secretes a complex digestive fluid referred to as.
Mucus (/ ˈ m j uː k ə s / MEW-kəs) is a slippery aqueous secretion produced by, and covering, mucous membranes.It is typically produced from cells found in mucous glands, although it may also originate from mixed glands, which contain both serous and mucous cells. It is a viscous colloid containing inorganic salts, antimicrobial enzymes (such as lysozymes), immunoglobulins (especially IgA. Rectal discharge is intermittent or continuous expression of liquid from the anus ().Normal rectal mucus is needed for proper excretion of waste. Otherwise, this is closely related to types of fecal incontinence (e.g. fecal leakage) but the term rectal discharge does not necessarily imply degrees of incontinence. Types of fecal incontinence that produce a liquid leakage could be thought of as. Mucus is a substance that is widely produced through most parts of the body and particularly within cavities where it mainly serves as a lubricant. It is a translucent, jelly-like substance and produced in every part of the gut. It is therefore not uncommon for mucus that is produced by mucous glands that line the small and large intestine to appear in the stool Mucosal inflammation typically refers to swelling or irritation of the mucus membranes. These are areas of the body which produce mucus in an effort to filter out bacteria, viruses, and other invaders. This includes the nasal cavities, mouth, throat, eyes, vagina, lungs, and intestines. Inflammation may occur if bacteria or viruses cause an.
However, because of the complex nature of the digestive process, there are several other systems that have potential. For example, the use of dietary fibre is one tool that can be used to lower risk factors for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. 15 Several studies have shown efficacy for a range of different dietary fibres. Cervical mucus method for natural family planning: The cervical mucus method, also called the Billings Ovulation Method, is a type of natural family planning also known as fertility awareness-based methods III. MUCOSAL DEFENSE Mucosal defense is a term used to describe the various factors and components that permit the mucosa to remain intact despite its frequent exposure to substances with a wide range of temperature, pH, and osmolarity, as well as to substances with detergent or cytotoxic actions, and bacterial products capable of causing local and systemic inflammatory reactions ()
Licorice root has anti-inflammatory properties that will help release mucus, and will make the air passages wider so that oxygen can flow more freely. It also has a soothing effect on the calm lungs. Watercress: Watercress is full of nutrients and good for a lot of medicinal purposes, one of which is to reduce the mucus caused by colds and. .4 to 7.8) mixture of water and mucus. Each day, about 0.95 to 1.9 liters (1 to 2 quarts) are secreted in response to the distention of the small intestine or the irritating effects of chyme on the intestinal mucosa A. blocking H2—histamine receptors. Term. The first line of defense in the stomach against damaging acid and pepsin is the. A. tight junctions of epithelial cells. B. rapid rate of epithelial cell replacement. C. adherent layer of mucus. D. release of gastrin. Definition. C. adherent layer of mucus Gastric gland, any of the branched tubules in the inner lining of the stomach that secrete gastric juice and protective mucus. The stomach has three layers of muscle: an outer longitudinal layer, a middle circular layer, and an inner oblique layer. The inner lining consists of four layers: the serosa, the muscularis, the submucosa, and the mucosa Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) is an important neurotransmitter in the enteric plexus of the gut and an autocrine hormone when released from enterochromaffin (EC) cells in the gastrointestinal mucosa, , pancreatic cells, and elsewhere., 5-HT released from EC cells by stimulations can be detected in intestinal lumen as well as systemic circulation
Macromolecules are more complex to deliver through the mucosa due to enzymatic degradation of the saliva and poor permeation across the buccal epithelium without chemical- and electrical-based permeation enhancement. 9 The improper use of permeation enhancers can cause safety concerns as far as local tissue irritation but also as a result of an. Cayenne pepper can break down mucus build-ups and help the body to flush it from the system. Once the mucus is removed, general relief from flu-like symptoms usually follows quickly. Use cayenne pepper as a general pick-me-up to boost the metabolic and circulatory systems, thanks to the detoxifying, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties Intestinal goblet cells secrete mucus layers protecting the intestinal epithelia against injuries. It is challenging to study the interaction of goblet cells, mucus layers, and gut microbiota because of difficulty in producing goblet cells and mucus models. We generate intestinal goblet cells from human epidermal stem cells with two small molecular inhibitors Repsox and CHIR99021 in the. The effects of fructans in the diet on the mucosal morphometry (height of villi, depth of the crypts, number of goblet cells), the thickness of the epithelial mucus layer and the histochemical composition of intestinal mucosubstances in the distal jejunum and the distal colon were investigated by comparing germ-free (GF) rats, rats harbouring Bacteroides vulgatus and Bifidobacterium longum.
The incoming acidic chyme from the stomach can erode the lining of the duodenum. The most common causes of duodenal ulcers, like stomach ulcers, include H.pylori infection and the use of NSAIDs. Ulcers in the duodenum arise from constant inflammation of the duodenal mucosa eventually leading to the formation of open sores in the lining. Browse 2,134 mucus stock photos and images available, or search for mucus medicine or mucus plug to find more great stock photos and pictures. sputum culture, sem - mucus stock pictures, royalty-free photos & images. bronchus with excess mucus, illustration - mucus stock illustrations. simple columnar epithelium with a goblet (mucus) cell and.
The equine stomach can be divided into two primary regions, the non-glandular and glandular region. The glandular region accounts for approximately 2/3 of the total stomach and contains secretory glands which release hydrochloric acid (HCl), pepsin, bicarbonate, and mucus. Pepsin and HCl are responsible for starting the process of digestion MCQs. PHARMACOLOGY: Drugs acting on GIT. 44.2 For healing duodenal ulcer the usual duration of H2 blocker therapy is: A. 4 weeks B. 6 weeks C. 8 weeks D. 12 weeks (p. 590) 44.3 What is true of acid control therapy with H2 blockers: A. It generally heals duodenal ulcers faster than gastric ulcers B EAEC infection involves adherence to the intestinal mucosa using AAFI, enhancing mucus production by the host cells that encases the bacteria in a biofilm on the surface of the intestinal mucosa, and production of toxins (enteroaggregative heat stable toxin and another plasmid encoded toxin). Both toxins induce fluid secretion and the prolonged. However, this type of dry and hard mucus is not entirely abnormal even though uncommon. It can be averted by using a humidifier in very dry climates, frequently administering a saline nasal spray to moisten the mucosa and staying away from the environmental factors that can cause drying like air conditioning and an electric fan The normal intestinal microbiota inhabits the colon mucus without triggering an inflammatory response. The reason for this and how the intestinal mucus of the colon is organized have begun to be unraveled. The mucus is organized in two layers: an inner, stratified mucus layer that is firmly adherent to the epithelial cells and approximately 50 μm thick; and an outer, nonattached layer that is.
Mucus in the Mouth and Stomach Mouth. Saliva in the mouth contains mucus with a thin consistency. This mucus is an excellent lubricant and makes swallowing food easier. Stomach. The stomach lining is covered by a protective layer of mucus. Glands in the stomach produce mucus, hydrochloric acid, and an inactive enzyme called pepsinogen tion throughout the gastrointestinal tract, while serving as a barrier to pathogenic bacteria 29. One of the main functions of mucus is to facilitate the passage of food, chyme and faeces through the body. Mucus also acts as a physical barrier that limits the dif fusion of drugs and other molecules from the lumen to the underlying. Name: _____ A&P Ch6 Practice Test Digestive System (p. 3 of 8) 18. Match the cells of the gastric pits with their proper secretion. Mucous cells _____ A. secrete gastrin when food enters the stomach Chief cells _____ B. secrete mucus, which helps protect the gastric mucosa People living with chronic lung diseases often have trouble with increased mucus production. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and chronic bronchitis tend to cause more increased mucus production than other types of chronic lung diseases. Otherwise known as phlegm or sputum, mucus traps debris and other organisms, so they can be cleared from the lungs when you cough Likewise, what small intestine secretes? Exocrine cells in the mucosa of the small intestine secrete mucus, peptidase, sucrase, maltase, lactase, lipase, and enterokinase. Endocrine cells secrete cholecystokinin and secretin.The most important factor for regulating secretions in the small intestine is the presence of chyme.. Additionally, what enzymes are present in the duodenum
Normally, diarrhea is a condition where there is excessive passage of very watery stools. However, in serious cases, there can be passage of blood and mucus in stool as well. This is especially true in cases that are caused due to parasitic infections of the intestine or due to severe infections of other parts of the gastrointestinal tract Adsorbents Aluminum hydroxide Methylcellulose Used to control diarrhea Act by adsorbing intestinal toxins or microorganisms and/or by coating or protecting the intestinal mucosa Much less effective than antimotility agents and Can interfere with the absorption of other drugs 38 They attached to skin at the nostrils, mouth, lips, eyelids, and genital area, but are also located within the body cavities, such as in the stomach, anus, trachea, and ears. Most mucous membranes secrete a sticky, thick fluid called mucus, which facilitates several barrier immune system functions and provides a moist environment for internal. The mucus plug is a clear, sticky, gelatinous glob of mucus. It can also be yellow or brown. It should not be bright or dark red, though, so if you think it is, give your practitioner a call. Your mucus plug always discharges before you deliver. However, while some women notice the plug passing, others miss it entirely Other symptoms can include: nausea and vomiting; bloating and gas; weight loss and/or loss of appetite; Chronic Gastritis Symptoms. In the vast majority of cases, chronic gastritis causes no symptoms. When the damage to the mucosa is severe and long standing, the stomach loses its ability to produce acid. This may cause digestive upsets
The intestine is inhabited by a tremendous number of microorganisms, which provide many benefits to nutrition, metabolism and immunity. Mucosal barriers by intestinal epithelial cells make it possible to maintain the symbiotic relationship between the gut microbiota and the host by separating them. Recent evidence indicates that mucosal barrier dysfunction contributes to the development of. The stomach is the most dilated part of the gastrointestinal tract and is situated between the lower end of the oesophagus and the small intestine. Its opening to the duodenum is controlled by the pyloric sphincter. The stomach can be divided into four anatomical regions ; the fundus, the body, the antrum and the pylorus The mucus layer is the first point of contact between the gut microbiota and the host. Intestinal mucus is composed primarily of the gel-forming secreted mucin MUC2 synthesized by intestinal goblet cells (1 - 3).Mucins form homodimers in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and are O-glycosylated in the Golgi apparatus.Glycosylation is a key step to produce functionally mature mucus, and mucin O. The colonic mucus barrier is the first line of defence that the underlying mucosa has against the wide range of potentially damaging agents of microbial, endogenous, and dietary origin that occur within the colonic lumen. The functional component of mucus is the secreted, polymeric glycoprotein mucin. The mucus barrier can either act as an energy source or a support medium for growth to the.
Absorption of nutrients in the jejunum and the ileum occurs in the area termed 'brush border', or the intestinal mucosa (Figure 3). The mucosa is comprised of finger-like projection called villi, which in turn contain more micro-size projections called microvilli. The tips of the microvilli form web-type structures called glycocalyx Gastrointestinal Ulcers in Small Animals. Disruption and ulceration of the GI mucosal barrier can be a consequence of several drugs and diseases in small animals. The stomach and/or the duodenum are the primary sites of ulceration. Clinical signs are usually nonspecific, whereas signs of hematemesis or melena are variable The stomach mucosa's epithelial lining consists only of surface mucus cells, which secrete a protective coat of alkaline mucus. A vast number of gastric pits dot the surface of the epithelium, giving it the appearance of a well-used pincushion, and mark the entry to each gastric gland, which secretes a complex digestive fluid referred to as gastric juice the mucus layer , and provides a selectively permeable gel layer for the diffusion, exchange and absorption of gases (eye and lung) and nutrients (gastrointestinal tract) with the underlying epithelium . 2. Mucus structural organization 2.1. Goblet/mucous cells Mucus is secreted by goblet/mucous cells (for a recent review se The stomach is the site where food is mixed with gastric juice and reduced to a fluid mass called chyme. The layers of the stomach wall follow the basic plan described above. The gastric glands are the basic structure of the stomach wall and can be thought of as tiny pits, or indentations, lined by epithelial cells
Correct answer 2. As the arrow points to a layer of smooth muscle cells located below a stratified squamous non-keratinized epithelium, it is the muscularis mucosae of the esophagus. The pharynx has no muscularis mucosae and the muscularis external is visible in the left upper corner of the low magnification image. 4 The digestive system is the organ system that includes the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract) and its accessory organs. The digestive system processes food into molecules that can be absorbed and utilized by the cells of the body. Food is broken down, bit by bit, until the molecules are small enough to be absorbed and the waste products are eliminated
INTESTINAL GLANDS & SECRETIONS Intestinal juice - Succus Entericus. Includes aqueous components Intestinal enzymes Mucus. Thursday, April 26, 2018. 4. AQUEOUS COMPONENTS Mainly water & electrolyte secreted by epithelial cells of intestines (Crypts of Liberkuhn) 2L/Day Same as ECF but slightly alkaline, Colorless, cloudy (Mucus, Epitelial. Strongly supporting this hypothesis is our finding in three different mucus-producing cell types--primary cultures of surface gastric mucous cells, a cultured cell line, and intestinal goblet cells--that a plasma membrane disruption can potently induce mucus secretion. Release of mucus is, in each case, not simply a matter of cell lysis. Stress gastritis is defined as sores in the digestive tract that can cause stomach upset and lead to bleeding. Symptoms include upper abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, or blood in the stool. In stressful situations, there is excess acid in the system, and the protective layer of mucus on the lining is broken down, which makes it more. Dr. Salerno's GI Factor is a leading-edge supplement designed to promote the health and barrier function of the gastrointestinal (GI) lining. Its unique formula includes nutrients that support the gut mucosal epithelium. The purpose of the epithelium is to allow the digestion and absorption of dietary nutrients while keeping unwanted toxins, microbes and food particles from passing directly.
WHAT CAUSES EXCESS MUCUS? The coughing. The congestion. And just an overall feeling of being stuffed up. It's all thanks to mucus. Most of us think of too much mucus as a problem only during cold and flu season, but there are many reasons excess mucus in your throat can be a year-round problem, too The protein could be released to the culture supernatant fluid after 24 h of growth and had affinity for both small intestinal mucus and gastric mucin. In the native state this protein was variable in size, and it had a molecular mass of 29 kDa when denatured. The denatured protein did not contain carbohydrate moieties and was not heat sensitive mucin - L. mucus from G. muxa = snot, slime; protein constituent of all mucus; occurs as granules in secretory cells. mucosa - (-ae) L. (mucous membrane) - the moist tissue that lines parts of the inside of the body (nose, mouth, digestive tract, lungs, and urinary). Glands in this tissue release a thick fluid called mucus Abstract. Human intestinal glycoproteins extracted from faeces were used as a model for intestinal mucus to investigate adhesion of pathogenic Escherichia coli and Salmonella strains, and the effect of probiotics on this adhesion. S-fimbriated E. coli expressed relatively high adhesion in the mucus model, but the other tested pathogens adhered less effectively Regular visits to the dentist can help keep your mouth healthy. Lupus and the esophagus. Lupus can cause inflammation in the esophagus and weaken the muscles you use to swallow. When the muscle that connects your esophagus to your stomach is too weak, it can cause acid reflux (stomach acid moving backward to the esophagus)
The esophageal region or squamous mucosa covers approximately one-third of the equine stomach, is void of glands, and is covered by stratified squamous epithelium similar to the esophagus. The glandular region covers the remaining two-thirds of the stomach and contains glands that secrete hydrochloric acid, pepsin, bicarbonate and mucus The mucosa and muscularis externa layers are modified in the stomach. The mucosa contains various glands filled with different cells that secrete the components of gastric juice. In the body of the stomach, there are parietal cells that secrete hydrochloric acid or HCl, a strong acid that helps to break down protein, and chief cells that.